01/01/1995 – Universidade Estadual Paulista – University – Nereide Schilaro Santa Rosa
The music education in the São Paulo’s public pre-school. (Click to see the original article)
• ABSTRACT: Using the São Paulo (Brazil) public pre-school as an example, we demonstrate how the systematic work with music education is important to children ages four to six, and how the music teacher is fundamental in developing a pedagogical context that helps to build the child’s concept of the world around him.
• KEYWORDS: Music Education; pre-school; music teacher.
SANTA ROSA, N. S. The music education in the São Paulo’s public pre-school. ARTEunesp (São Paulo), v. 11, p.35-51, 1995.
The public service to São Paulo child in 1935, it became necessary due to economic expansion in new industries and increased population, by immigrants.
Thus, to meet the needs, the playgrounds were created. Initially, five parks reach children 3-12 years, from 7: 30 am to 18h, working in large wooded areas. Neighborhoods with higher industrial and population expansion and where already configured the labor of women workers in the factories.
In 1942, São Paulo had grown to seven parks: Bras, Mooca, Lapa, Ipiranga, Santo Amaro, Barra Funda, Catumbi, Roman Villa.
The activities were aimed at the formation of the body, with recreation, organized play, “ministering to them at the same time all necessary assistance …” (Miranda, 1941, p.20).
According Nicanor Miranda (1941, p.19), the playgrounds worked during the day and attend boys 13-21 years old, at night, in the Minor Workers Club. The children were involved in activities directed and regularly accompanied by recreationists.
Decree-Law n.430 of 07/08/1947, transformed the Department of Culture and Hygiene in Department of Health and Department of Education and Culture. Table of playgrounds consisted of:
• Instructor (degree in Physical Education);
• health educator;
• Music educator (with Conservatory certificate);
• educator entertainer;
• doctor and dentist.
Physical Education, according Nicanor Miranda, involves and was assumed to be health care, periodic health examinations, dietary regimes, social services and scientific research relating to the student, their family, and their ecological conditions.
The activities also had a pre-vocational aspect, for manual labor was very developed and targeting embroidery and weaving.
The work had a welfare character since there was a systematic pedagogical proposal, the activities were not full-time and had not even organized food (lunch). There was, yes, a concern to remove children from the street, because of the mothers start working outside the home, in industry, and the large number of children, mostly immigrants, who lived in slums and “needed sun and space “.
Note that, even without a formal systematic teaching, working with the space (in the recreation and physical education), the logic (in crafts and organized games) and language (in music education). Of course, this happened in a spontaneous way in guiding work activities.
The role of music in the Kindergartens School
The music was always present in the kindergartens.
Brazilian folklore, sung by wheels, dances, songs, and civic music, authors like Aricó Junior, Lorenzo Fernandez, Solon Borges dos Reis, Joubert de Carvalho and others, were remembered and played. The group of intellectuals responsible for the genesis of the kindergartens school had within it figures as Mário de Andrade and Paulo Duarte, all geared to the promotion and preservation of Brazilian culture.
At that time, the Brazilian popular music was highly valued. Through radio, great composers and Brazilian singers took our musical culture at all. The child had the opportunity to hear samba, gherkin, marches, balloon, swirling music, carnival marches, rednecks dances etc. It made that Brazilian music was an integral part of people’s lives. The child listened at home with their parents, and school, with their teachers.
The following is the testimony of Music educator Vitalina Abreu Accioli, who tells us about the development of work and music education in the parks:
I was directly linked to conductor Martin Braunwieser, Music Education Advisor. We received him in semiannual meetings, guidance on programming that should be developed. I remember there was one music book for all dates to be celebrated. He was very enthusiastic with civic celebrations though it was not Brazilian. We get material in meetings besides examples and suggestions. For example, nursery rhyme he taught one and we researched to enlarge the repertoire. It was necessary to work with all classes, with different numbers according to age groups, adapting the activity. And these activities, he made damn sure that to develop the Brazilian folklore because he was an ardent lover of Brazil. Much folk music gave up, nursery rhymes, and was very keen rhythmic bands. Some people received the instruments, others we built with baking tin, broom handle, cap, coconut shell. This little band, we were oriented to include even the little ones because it was all a rhythmic development work. We taught the lyrics of the songs; I talked, and children talking collectively. Also we developed the auditory perception and language, within the Music Education. The conductor was adamant that we do not accept “we taught little songs”, because of the work that was behind. In 1957, there were many parks and there was no music educator for everyone. Then there was a meeting, and I was the first to work in two parks because the conductor thought that if there were three days of instruction per week was better than nothing. Then alternated Playground and period. There was much controversy because we had to redesign the job. Everything was noted in the reports that were passed to the conductor that quoted by name in meetings. (Revised, 1985 p.22).
From 1947 to 1955, the kindergartens schools increased from nine to fifty; in 1956, were created 34 new parks. Note that the creation of new parks was interesting because it represented a political impact on the population.
From 1947 to 1955, the playgrounds increased from nine to fifty; in 1956, were created 34 new parks. Note that the creation of new parks was interesting because it represented a political impact on the population.
in 1969, the music educator, appeared on a job well defined in Decree n.7.895 of 14.1.1969.3.
1 Wake and enhance the musical heritage of the student, through vocal and instrumental ensembles, rhythmic little band, toys and wheels sung, dances and folk songs, musical initiation and instrumental teaching.
2 Place the music as disciplinary force, socialization and moral education, civic, intellectual, artistic and aesthetic of the student.
3 Raise the level of civic and social celebrations, in appropriate repertoire.
4 Using music as a therapeutic function (arrhythmias, dysphasia, hearing impairment and exceptional education).
5 Run related tasks.
Note, therefore, that the work with music education was increasingly valued and intensifying; the idea of conductor Martin Braunwieser continued to flourish: work with the music was much more than “teach little songs.”
In the administration of Mayor Paulo Maluf, (1968/1971) was created 188 pre-primary classes in existing parks.
The concern in making a systematic educational work in the park and the abandonment of care and medical emphasis end up questioning the recreational character, own activities then performed in the parks. The prospects before taken with recreational and playful approach and learning from practical work for older now live with speeches of pre-school education who defended at the time, a teaching that would ensure further development of readiness for literacy (Revised 1985 ).
In 1967, there were forty positions of the music educator, 25 in the L standard, with provision for a contest of tests and titles, and 15 in the standard M, with provision for promotion. Candidates should be degree holders Orpheonic Singing and Musical Conservatory officially recognized.
But the Law of Directives and Bases n.5.692, 1971, introduced the Arts Education in the curriculum of schools. Thus, music education has become one of the items worked in Art Education, along with design and artistic expression. Thus, higher education courses have been restructured, and music education became part of the Bachelor’s Degree in Art Education with specialization in Music, Plastic, Design, and Performing.
Often, the future music teacher did not have any specific knowledge of music education, as a result of the systematic work and specializing in music was being diluted over the years.
With the demise of the music curriculum of elementary schools, children also began to lose the opportunity to listen and learn the musical culture of Brazil, and increasingly foreign music became present.
Beginning The EMEIs
In 1972, the parks came to accept children 3-7 years and in 1975 was created the Department of Education spun off from the Department of Culture. The parks are now called to Municipal Schools EMEI childhood education, linked to the Department of Early Childhood Education which replaced the Department of Education and Recreation.
In 1975, the music educator in EMEI, was part of the framework of the Municipal Education. With fifty positions and with well-defined responsibilities, including the preparation of the annual planning, strategy selection, integration with activities in schools and the organization campaigns and civic and social celebrations.
But from then on, these positions already appears with a severe and important observation: “positions extinct in vacancy”. A reflection of the Guidelines and Framework Act, in which music education officially began to be worked in Art Education, without specificity. But in reality never ceased to be practiced, even an unsystematic way, and almost imperceptible. How many musical works, developed in schools, have been lost through the ages? Certainly, many. The music is as important as to talk for the humans. Because “music reflects life as much as art or literature” (Galway, 1987, p. 10).
Between 1976 and 1978, the musical educators were much in demand in the specific training of Child Education Plan (PLANEDI).
This Plan was the use of mothers of students as monitors, which were trained and qualified to work with the teacher in Music activities (nursery rhymes, dances, songs) and Physical Education. Several proposals from different administrations were conflicting. Because while all gave emphasis and recognized the importance of developing the student in this form of expression, and maximized the work of the music educator in office, no administration has taken steps to have the work actually specialized in music.
In Ordinance n.9.399.5 the music educator appeared in the chapter on transitional provisions. He should participate in the School Plan. Develop activities with classes in three stages: Assist the faculty in civic and educational, religious and socio-cultural campaigns set out in the Academic Calendar and perform other duties as may be delegated by the School Director where he worked.
According to this Ordinance, the musical activities were developed within the existing curriculum content at the time, in the psychological area, as an affective domain.
In the Triennial Plan, 1985/1987 was pointed out the need to value the teacher. Investing in their competence and implementing a new program that emphasized the cognitive and linguistic development of students, but without explicit reference to music education.
The administration of Mayor Jânio Quadros (1986/1989), there has been some elective training in that music education understood as a resource for cognitive development.
In the Common Rules of the City of São Paulo School, August 1992, is not included in the music educator in teaching staff: it begins to be named Teacher Education Holder Elementary II, and musical expression is part of the curricular framework of EMEI, between areas of knowledge, considered a language “should be understood as content and not just as a resource for building other knowledge.”
Increasingly, the Brazilian musical culture is devalued; the influence and the presence of commercial music are overwhelming. The child only can hear what is imposed by the media. And at school, just offers too, mainly because most teachers have no particular instruction. It is up to us, music educators or not, give this child the opportunity to discover the beauty and the importance of music, especially the Brazilian. Provide all teachings of music education, appreciated for the higher layers of society, is to equalize opportunities, is to democratize education.
Currently, being registered at the Chamber of Deputies proposals that indicate the concern of the authorities to preserve, again, the specificity of each artistic language.
Analyzing the historical review of music education in EMEI, one comes to the conclusion that music was the central part of all the work done in these sixty years.
The music contributed to the formation of thousands of São Paulo citizens who attended the Kindergartens school and then the Municipal Schools Early Childhood Education.
The music teacher had outstanding performance in the history of EMEI since a commonplace activity in the classroom until large civic celebrations that were held.
Today, are in addition to around 350 Municipal Schools Early Childhood Education, assisting children 4-6 years, most part-time (four hours). In 1993, 338 schools were functioning, they attend 174,699 students (Municipal Planning). The public service in this age group in the city of São Paulo is being conducted exclusively by the Municipal Government in EMEIs in PLANEDI classes operating in primary schools and Community Classes.
The pedagogical framework of the technical staff of institutions is carried out by the Division of Technical Guidance (DOT), subject to the Superintendent of Municipal Education (SUPEME). It is the Technical Guidance Division of Early Childhood Education and Literacy (DOT / 3), under the guidance of Ms. Director Sylvia Paula de Almeida Torres Vilhena, subject to the DOT, which directs and subsidizes the Regional Municipal Education (DREM’s), teams techniques of EMEIs, composed of directors, assis-try, coordinators and their teaching teams.
The musical team DOT / 3, under our responsibility, in view of the historic researched by us. Demonstrated how the work with music education was valued, interesting and, most of all, help in the development of children. Decided to delineate their actions, aiming at the realization of a consistent and serious work with music education in EMEI from 1993.
Therefore, as we begin our management in January of that year, we sent a questionnaire to all EMEIs with issues that could direct us as to the music reality in municipal kindergarten. This study is registered as Co DOT G Rt 007/93 filed in Document Memory, the Municipal Department of Education, and has shown us that all the technical teams and teachers of EMEIs make clear the importance of music education for children 4-6 years. The report also points out the unanimity on the need for the presence of a musical expert in school, to work seamlessly with the teachers, and even cites the work that was previously done by the musical educators.
The teacher EMEI knows the importance of working with the music, but often, for various reasons, does not work and the child loses the opportunity.
Among these reasons include lack of systematization and evaluation of the musical work, the lack of awareness of the importance of music to the man and the child and the lack of knowledge about music education.
As for the latter, faced with the lack of professionals with specific musical knowledge, a fact due to the musical education is linked to Arts Education, emptying its specificity. Much bigger is still the difficulty of counting on specialized music educator in early childhood education.
Thus, the current state of music education is this: Deficiency of professionals, due to the argument that there is no place to work and vice versa, music education is not worked with our children by not having enough specialists. If we provide a space for the work of these professionals, certainly feel the consequences of this action in increasing interested in the courses, and return of a musical work so important for our students. For all that, it is necessary to rescue the particular work with the musical language in schools and in our specific case, the Municipal Schools Early Childhood Education, as were the pioneers, as seen in history.
We must provide an education that enables the full manifestation of the child participant, active, critical and creative.
Thus, the child’s cognitive development can and should be worked on musical activities. Therefore, the teacher must know the development of its students, adjust the musical activities and continually question all his productions, causing the child to elaborate their musical structures.
The baby hears sounds, such as the mother’s voice, lullabies, rattles, but they do not remain, that is, he relates them with a momentary well-being. So when the mother approaches talking or singing, the baby calms down, there is a search harmonic compatibility.
At the end of the sensorimotor period, the child is already building groups. Has reversibility in action and has the conservation of the object (mental image). We can see that in musical activities when the child calms down listening to a familiar voice, that is, it can recognize and identify a sound previously heard.
In the preoperative period, the semiotic function is already present. And its form of conduct, the music is crafted in imitation, in symbolic play, the symbol system as an aid to the child’s representation process. The child imitates the sounds that are significant. Classifies sounds according to the height, intensity, duration, timbre, rhythm / tempo. Makes sequence of sounds through singing and rhythm with the little band instruments and music in the valley symbolic play at times when she dramatizes and plays with the sounds does not make-believe. The hearing development must also be worked in this period; it is critical to language development and later for reading and writing.
The child mental structures already built, which has reversibility in thinking and amount of storage. The music can also relate to the duration of sounds, i.e., to compare the value of a whole note with two minimum and vice-versa. For a child can compare the duration of the sounds, you should do that its represents its symbols, notice the change in the duration of sounds with activities in the proposal is discovery, research, creativity, expressiveness, and especially of involvement and not only through musical symbols. The child questioned by the teacher, learns and finds itself in the exercise of its hypothesis, the value of each sound, according to the knowledge that it has managed to develop in your life. The teacher should know the child, to provide you with opportunities. If, instead of questioning it with challenges. The teacher to take a priori stance, only consider the musical free expression of the child, or adopt an empiricist attitude of considering as the “keeper of knowledge”. Rehearsing mechanically songs, the child will have no opportunity to build their knowledge, exercising their own hypotheses, developing a good self-image, appropriating and making use of the diversity of forms of expression used by society, because this way it is not challenged to act in new contexts. In interactionist attitude, it can develop musical structures, establishing sound relationships, challenging your thinking, building his conception of the world.
When we consider that in order to build understanding of himself and the world, it is necessary to act on the environment, in the way as the environment act on the man. That art is part of the ways of knowing the world and himself. Among them the musical language; this begins through interaction with the environment; the child engages fully with the music and the changes always, making it little by little, in a structured response; that music education provides the experience of musical language as a means of representation of knowledge built by the intellectual and affective interaction between children and the environment, Musical Staff DOT / 3 elaborated his action, marked out in the proposed five axes for political educational (City Department of Education) SME, in four levels of action:
1 subsidizes and evaluates musical projects in EMEIs, through meetings with various schools, selection, and instruction on preparation of musical teaching-material.
2 training courses: to give teachers interested in music, even if they are not involved in musical projects, through courses, workshops.
3 Music Events in EMEIs: integration with different musical institutions for the realization of events involving students of EMEIs in order to generate interest in music and give opportunity to contact students with different musical styles, especially classical and folk music.
4 pedagogical-musical orientation to interested staff in developing musical project in EMEIs, especially teachers holders of Early Childhood Education major in Music.
5 Suggest new avenues for effective work with music education in EMEI.
To implement the Music Education job in EMEI which is deploying a Project Pilot Musical Monitor Training of EMEI, developed under the coordination of the musical team DOT / 3, involving institutions such as the Municipal School of the Municipal Department of Culture Music the Art Institute of UNESP and other institutions.
This pilot project seeks to meet the requests of the Municipal Education Network, shown in research as mentioned above regarding the return of the musical expert in EMEI. It is developed with students from institutions that train musicians or music teachers, working with students of the Municipal Schools Early Childhood Education through non-paid internships.
During the year, 1994 were met twenty EMEIs, making a total of 4000 students. These school units were initially chosen according to the proximity of residence of trainees and the interest of technical teams and school teachers to participate in the project. We started with optional enrollment in institutions then enrolled trainees participated in tutoring seminars under the musical group DOT / 3, thus beginning the regency of classes in EMEIs in two hours per week divided into 15-20 minute long classes per class. The suitability of the schedule is made between the educational coordinator of the school and the trainee. To complete the stage, the participant delivers the perfect stage form, with the director of the signature of the school unit in which he served a completed assessment report and received a project participation certificate. The school unit also sends a report evaluating the trainee’s performance results. During 1994, the project was divided into two stages lasting 36 hours each.
The work of the evaluation report carried out in 1994 shows that the result was excellent, because 100% of schools met want the continuity of the project and, if possible, the guaranteed presence of musical expert in EMEI. Also, we would highlight the high interest of music students to get involved in this graceful project, realizing the importance of experience when they apply theoretical knowledge in the practice of the classroom. Have opportunity noting, also, the need to adjust your posture and deepen knowledge of the age group served.
The paths are certainly challenging, but the challenge is catchy, if we can achieve our goals, certainly a new way for music will open in schools, undoubtedly a cheerful and pleasant way!
Our mission is fulfilled.
To the City Department of Education as having used the institution documentation.
To the Board and the teaching staff of the School of Music of the Municipal Culture of São Paulo, participating in musical didactic presentations in EMEIs.
The photos of the Municipal file Sao Paulo Education are of the unknown author and were published in the brochure “What are the parks and children’s places of São Paulo”, in 1949. In this article, these photos were photographed this leaflet, by Neusa Scalea.
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2 MIRANDA, N. Origem e propagação dos paiques infantis e parques de jogos. São Paulo: Departamento de Cultura, 1941.
3 REVISTA ESCOLA MUNICIPAL (São Paulo), v.18, n.13, 1985.
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